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However, esteucturas second example has the same first two principal stresses s1 and s2, but s3 is 0. This enlarges the outermost circle which means that the overall state of stress has increased. In the early stages of mechanical design, the locations of most likely stress failure and the corresponding stress components acting at those locations must be identified.

The general state of stress is pictured on the stress element below. Then plot the second pair 0, estrycturas at point B. Since there are no non-zero z component shear stresses, sz is the third principal stress with a value of —25 C.

Draw the circle and determine two of the principal stresses.


The center C is located at a isostaticqs value of What about the two 2-D examples? In the real world of applications all objects are 3-D.

The triangle C, sx, and txy form a 30, 40, 50 triangle, so the circle radius is The two principal stresses from the 2-D circle are T and 10 T. Be forewarned the principal stresses and this peak shear stress are going to play a strong role in determining the factor of safety in mechanical design.


Simple geometric triangles can then determine the circle radius and all principal estructkras and peak shear stress values.

In example 1, the second principal stress, s2, becomes zero and the third principal stress, s3, is negative, but the overall range is the same. That factor is the influence of the additional 3-D stress components on the design safety.

In a second example, assume that sx is smaller than sybut both are positive, and that txy is cw. They are sx, txy and sy, tyx. It finds the principal stresses and a maximum shear stress although this maximum shear stress may be quite misleading in 3-D stress.


These two points establish the circle diameter. In many simple cases the effective state of stress can be reduced to 2-D or 1-D, but only after careful consideration. However, there is a highly significant factor in mechanical design that has thus far been neglected. How do they become 3-D representations? The maximum shear estrudturas is at the peak of the largest circle and is equal to half the difference between s1 and s3.

Connecting these points locates the circle center at point C. Plot the next coordinate pair sy, tyx at B.

Carrying this attitude through the mechanical design process is a recipe for failure. These two points form the diameter of the circle with its center at point C. Everything isostatcas the mechanical design realm has solid 3-D characteristics. First sketch the normal stress axis along the horizontal and the etsructuras stress axis along the vertical. Sketch the normal stress, s, and shear stress, t axes and plot the coordinate pair sx, txy at point A and then sy, tyx at point B.


In this case, there is an appreciable contribution by the 3-D effect that must not be ignored in accounting for design safety.

This graphical representation of the 2-D stress transformation equations provides a quick, accurate and visual protrayal of etructuras 2-D state of stress.

There are six independent stress components shown in a conventient Cartesian coordinate system. Arquivos Semelhantes Anamnese Exemplo de anamneses.

The same is true for the state of stress in the solid. This shows all potential non-zero 2-D stress components. Note also that there is one dominant peak shear stress in this diagram. The definition of the three circle diagram is sketched below. Principios basicos de farmacologia Principios basicos de farmacologia. The estrcuturas is true in 3-D stress. This convention is useful for determining the proper orientation of principal stresses esfructuras other components relative to the x,y coordinates.

It is very important to remember that stress components for one location in a machine part should never be combined with stress components for a different location in the same part. As an example, assume that sx is positive and txy is positive cw with sy equal zero. Look at the modified examples below.